| File:The Matrix Poster.jpg |
|Directed by|| Larry Wachowski|
|Produced by|| Joel Silver|
|Written by|| Larry Wachowski|
|Starring|| Keanu Reeves|
|Music by||Don Davis|
|Editing by||Zach Staenberg|
|Distributed by|| Warner Bros.|
Village Roadshow Pictures
|Release date(s)|| North America:|
March 31, 1999
April 9, 1999
June 11, 1999
|Running time||136 min.|
|Country|| United States|
|Followed by||The Matrix Reloaded|
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction-martial arts-action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano, and Hugo Weaving. It was first released in the USA on March 31, 1999, and is the first entry in The Matrix series of films, comics, video games, and animation.
The film describes a future in which reality perceived by humans is actually the Matrix, a simulated reality created by sentient machines in order to pacify and subdue the human population while their bodies' heat and electrical activity are used as an energy source. Upon learning this, computer programmer "Neo" is drawn into a rebellion against the machines. The film contains many references to the cyberpunk and hacker subcultures; philosophical and religious ideas; and homages to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Hong Kong action cinema, Spaghetti Westerns, and Japanese animation.
Computer programmer Thomas A. Anderson leads a secret life as a hacker under the alias "Neo". He wishes to learn the answer to the question, "What is the Matrix?" Cryptic messages appearing on his computer monitor and an encounter with several sinister agents lead him to a group led by the mysterious Morpheus, a man who offers him the chance to learn the truth about the Matrix. Neo accepts by swallowing an offered red pill, and abruptly wakes up naked in a liquid-filled pod, his body connected by wires to a vast mechanical tower covered with identical pods. The connections are severed and he is rescued by Morpheus and taken aboard his hovercraft, the Nebuchadnezzar. Neo's neglected physical body is restored, and Morpheus explains the situation.
Morpheus informs Neo that the year is not 1999, but estimated to be closer to 2199. Humanity is fighting a war against intelligent machines created in the early 21st century. The sky is covered in thick black clouds created by the humans in an attempt to cut off the machines' supply of solar power. The machines responded by using human beings as their energy source, growing countless people in pods and harvesting their bioelectrical energy and body heat. The world which Neo has inhabited since birth is the Matrix, an illusory simulated reality construct of the world as it was in 1999, developed by the machines to keep the human population docile in their captivity. Morpheus and his crew are a group of free humans who "unplug" others from the Matrix and recruit them to their resistance against the machines. Within the Matrix they are able to use their understanding of its nature to bend the laws of physics within the simulation, giving them superhuman abilities. Morpheus believes that Neo is "the One", a man prophesied to end the war through his limitless control over the Matrix.
Neo is trained to become a member of the group. A socket in the back of Neo's skull, formerly used to connect him to the Matrix, allows knowledge to be uploaded directly into his mind. He learns numerous martial arts disciplines, and demonstrates his kung fu skills by sparring with Morpheus in a virtual reality "construct" environment similar to the Matrix, impressing the crew with his speed. Further training introduces Neo to the key dangers in the Matrix itself. Injuries suffered there are reflected in the real world; if he is killed in the Matrix, his physical body will also die. He is warned of the presence of Agents, powerful and fast sentient programs with the ability to take over the virtual body of anyone still connected to the system, whose purpose is to seek out and eliminate any threats to the simulation. This makes it incredibly dangerous to fight Agents in populated areas, as anyone in the surroundings could become possessed by the Agent(s), if his previous human "shell" was destroyed. Yet Morpheus is confident that once Neo fully understands his own abilities as "the One", they will be no match for him.
The group enters the Matrix and takes Neo to meet the Oracle, the woman who has predicted the eventual emergence of the One. She tells Neo that he has "the gift", but that he is waiting for something, perhaps the next life. From her comments, Neo deduces that he is not the One. She adds that Morpheus believes in Neo so blindly that he will sacrifice his life to save him. Returning to the hacked telephone line which serves as a safe "exit" from the Matrix, the group is ambushed by Agents and SWAT teams. Morpheus is captured as Neo and the others escape, later learning that they were betrayed by the crew-member Cypher, who preferred his old life in ignorance of the real world's hardships. Cypher made a deal with the Agents to give them Morpheus in exchange for a permanent return to the Matrix. The betrayal leads to the deaths of all crew-members except Neo, Trinity, Tank, and Morpheus, who is imprisoned in a government building within the Matrix. The Agents attempt to gain information from him regarding access codes to the mainframe of Zion, the humans’ last refuge deep underground in the real world. Neo and Trinity return to the Matrix and storm the building, rescuing their leader. Neo becomes more confident and familiar with manipulating the Matrix, ultimately dodging bullets fired at him by an Agent. Morpheus and Trinity use a subway station telephone to exit the Matrix, but before Neo can leave, he is ambushed by Agent Smith. He stands his ground and eventually defeats Smith, but flees when the Agent possesses another body.
As Neo runs through the city towards another telephone exit, he is pursued by the Agents while "Sentinel" machines converge on the Nebuchadnezzar's position in the real world. Neo reaches an exit, but he is ambushed by a waiting Agent Smith and shot dead. Back onboard the Nebuchadnezzar, in the real world, Trinity whispers to Neo that she was told by the Oracle that she would fall in love with "the One", implying that Neo is "the One". She refuses to accept his death and kisses him. Neo's heart beats again, and within the Matrix he stands up; the Agents shoot at him, but he raises his palm and stops their bullets in mid-air. Neo is able to see the Matrix as it really is: lines of streaming green code; he has finally become "the One". Agent Smith makes a final attempt to kill him, but his punches are effortlessly blocked, and Neo destroys him. The other two Agents flee, and Neo returns to the real world just in time for the ship's EMP weapon to destroy the Sentinels that had already breached the hull of the ship. A short epilogue shows Neo back in the Matrix, making a telephone call promising that he will demonstrate to the people imprisoned in the Matrix that "anything is possible." He hangs up the phone and flies into the sky.
Cast and charactersEdit
- See also: The Matrix character names
- Keanu Reeves as Thomas A. Anderson / Neo: A computer programmer who moonlights as the hacker Neo, later to realize he is the One when trying to rescue Morpheus from the Agents.
- Laurence Fishburne as Morpheus: A human freed from the Matrix, captain of the Nebuchadnezzar. He is the one who finds Neo.
- Carrie-Anne Moss as Trinity: Freed by Morpheus, crewman of the Nebuchadnezzar and Neo's romantic interest.
- Hugo Weaving as Agent Smith: A sentient "Agent" program of the Matrix whose purpose is to destroy Zion and stop humans from getting out of the Matrix, but has ambitions to free himself from his duties.
- Joe Pantoliano as Cypher: Another freed by Morpheus, he betrays the Nebuchadnezzar's crew to the Agents to ensure his return to the Matrix because "Ignorance is bliss."
- Julian Arahanga as Apoc: A freed human and crew member on the Nebuchadnezzar.
- Anthony Ray Parker as Dozer: A "natural" human, with no plugs for the Matrix, and pilot of the Nebuchadnezzar.
- Marcus Chong as Tank: Dozer's brother, operates the training simulation, also a "natural" human and operator of the Nebuchadnezzar.
- Matt Doran as Mouse: A freed human and programmer on the Nebuchadnezzar.
- Gloria Foster as the Oracle: Exiled program who still resides in the Matrix, helping the freed humans with her foresight and wisdom.
- Belinda McClory as Switch: A human freed by Morpheus and crew member of the Nebuchadnezzar.
- Paul Goddard as Agent Brown: One of two sentient "Agent" programs in the Matrix who work with Agent Smith to destroy Zion and stop humans escaping the system.
- Robert Taylor as Agent Jones: Second sentient "Agent" program working with Agent Smith.
The Matrix was a co-production of Warner Bros. Studios and Australian Village Roadshow Pictures, and all but a few scenes were filmed at Fox Studios in Sydney, Australia, and in the city itself. Recognizable landmarks were not included in order to maintain the setting of a generic American city. Nevertheless, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Anzac bridge, AWA Tower, Martin Place, Telstra and a Commonwealth Bank branch are visible in some shots. Other clues remain, such as the sign next to the elevator in the famed lobby scene reading "do not use lift during fire."; and the "Authorised Personnel Only" sign (American spelling would be Authorized Personnel Only) on the door of the rooftop of the building where Morpheus was kept. In addition, in some scenes, traffic flow on the left hand side can be observed, which is another give-away for the filming location.
Subtle nods were included to Chicago, Illinois, the home city of the directors, through a subtly placed picture of the Chicago skyline, city maps, and place names like the Adams Street Bridge, Wells and Lake, Franklin and Erie, State and Balbo, and Wabash and Lake. The latter location, where Neo exits the Matrix for the last time before the flying sequence, was incidentally the scene of a 1977 derailment on the Chicago 'L'.
The rooftop set that Trinity uses to escape from Agent Jones early in the film was leftover from the production of Dark City, which has been remarked upon due to the thematic similarities of the films. According to The Art of the Matrix, at least one filmed scene and a variety of short pieces of action were omitted from the final cut, and have (to date) not been published.
The Wachowski Brothers were keen that all involved understood the thematic background of the movie. For example, the book used to conceal disks early in the movie, Simulacra and Simulation, a 1981 work by the French philosopher Jean Baudrillard, was required reading for most of the principal cast and crew.
Actor Will Smith turned down the role of Neo to make Wild Wild West. He later stated that, if given the role at that time, he "would have messed it up". Nicolas Cage turned down the role because of "family obligations". Janet Jackson turned down a role in the film because of previous obligations to go on tour.
In the film, the code that comprises the Matrix itself is frequently represented as downward-flowing green characters. This code includes mirror images of half-width kana characters and Western Latin letters and numerals. In one scene, the pattern of trickling rain on a window being cleaned resembles this code. More generally, the film's production design placed a bias towards its distinctive green color for scenes set within the Matrix, whereas there is an emphasis on the color blue during the scenes set in the real world. In addition, grid-patterns were incorporated into the sets for scenes inside the Matrix, intended to convey the cold, logical, artificial nature of that environment.
The "digital rain" is strongly reminiscent of similar computer code in the film Ghost in the Shell, an acknowledged influence on the Matrix series (see below). The linking of the color green to computers may have been intended to evoke the green tint of the older monochrome computer monitors.
The film is known for developing and popularizing the use of a visual effect known as "bullet time", which allows the viewer to explore a moment progressing in slow-motion as the camera appears to orbit around the scene at normal speed.
One proposed technique for creating these effects involved propelling a high speed camera along a fixed track with a rocket to capture the action as it occurred. However, this was discarded as unfeasible, because not only was the destruction of the camera in the attempt all but inevitable, but the camera would also be almost impossible to control at such speeds. Instead, the method used was a technically expanded version of an old art photography technique known as time-slice photography, in which a large number of cameras are placed around an object and triggered nearly simultaneously. Each camera is a still-picture camera, and not a motion picture camera, and it contributes just one frame to the video sequence. When the sequence of shots is viewed as in a movie, the viewer sees what are in effect two-dimensional "slices" of a three-dimensional moment. Watching such a "time slice" movie is akin to the real-life experience of walking around a statue to see how it looks from different angles. The positioning of the still cameras can be varied along any desired smooth curve to produce a smooth looking camera motion in the finished clip, and the timing of each camera's firing may be delayed slightly, so that a motion scene can be executed (albeit over a very short period of movie time).
Some scenes in The Matrix feature the "time-slice" effect with completely frozen characters and objects. Film interpolation techniques improved the fluidity of the apparent "camera motion". The effect was further expanded upon by the Wachowski brothers and the visual effects supervisor John Gaeta so as to create "bullet time", which incorporates temporal motion, so that rather than being totally frozen the scene progresses in slow and variable motion. Engineers at Manex Visual Effects pioneered 3-D visualization planning methods to move beyond mechanically fixed views towards more complicated camera paths and flexibly moving interest points. There is also an improved fluidity through the use of non-linear interpolation, digital compositing, and the introduction of computer generated "virtual" scenery.
The objective of the bullet time shots in The Matrix was to creatively illustrate "mind over matter" type events as captured by a "virtual camera". However, the original technical approach was physically bound to pre-determined perspectives, and the resulting effect only suggests the capabilities of a true virtual camera.
The evolution of photogrametric and image-based computer-generated background approaches in The Matrix's bullet time shots set the stage for later innovations unveiled in the sequels The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. Virtual Cinematography (CGI-rendered characters, locations, and events) and the high-definition "Universal Capture" process completely replaced the use of still camera arrays, thus more closely realizing the "virtual camera".
The film's score was composed by Don Davis. He noted that mirrors appear frequently in the movie: reflections of the blue and red pills are seen in Morpheus's glasses; Neo's capture by Agents is viewed through the rear-view mirror of Trinity's motorcycle; Neo observes a broken mirror mending itself; reflections warp as a spoon is bent; the reflection of a helicopter is visible as it approaches a skyscraper. (The film also frequently references the book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, which has a sequel entitled Through the Looking-Glass.) Davis focused on this theme of reflections when creating his score, alternating between sections of the orchestra and attempting to incorporate contrapuntal ideas.
In addition to Davis' score, The Matrix soundtrack also features music from acts such as Rammstein, Rob Dougan, Rage Against the Machine, Propellerheads, Ministry, Deftones, The Prodigy, Rob Zombie, Meat Beat Manifesto, and Marilyn Manson. Other pieces from artists such as Duke Ellington, Django Reinhardt, and Massive Attack are included in the film, but not featured on the soundtrack.
The Matrix was first released in the U.S. on March 31 1999. It earned $171 million in the U.S. and $460 million worldwide, and later became the first DVD to sell more than three million copies in the U.S. The Ultimate Matrix Collection was released on HD DVD on May 22 2007  and on Blu-ray on October 14 2008.
The Matrix received generally favorable reviews from film critics, with a general consensus forming that it presented an "ingenious" blend of Hong Kong action cinema, innovative visual effects and an imaginative vision. Rotten Tomatoes reported that 86% of critics gave the film positive reviews, with an average score of 7.4/10, based upon a sample of 122 reviews. The site reported that 68% of selected notable critics gave the film a positive review, based upon a sample of 28. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 73 upon its DVD release, based on 35 reviews.
Philip Strick commented in Sight & Sound, "if the Wachowskis claim no originality of message, they are startling innovators of method", praising the film's details and its "broadside of astonishing images". Roger Ebert praised the film's visuals and premise, but disliked the third act's focus on action. Similarly, Time Out praised the "entertainingly ingenious" switches between different realities, Hugo Weaving's "engagingly odd" performance, and the film's cinematography and production design, but concluded, "the promising premise is steadily wasted as the film turns into a fairly routine action pic… yet another slice of overlong, high concept hokum". Other reviewers criticised the comparative humorlessness and self-indulgence of the movie.
In 2001, The Matrix was placed 66th in the American Film Institute's "100 Years... 100 Thrills" list. In 2007, Entertainment Weekly called The Matrix the best science-fiction piece of media for the past 25 years.
Several science fiction creators commented on the film. Author William Gibson, a key figure in cyberpunk fiction, called the film "an innocent delight I hadn't felt in a long time", and stated, "Neo is my favourite-ever science fiction hero, absolutely". Joss Whedon called the film "my number one" and praised its storytelling, structure and depth, concluding, "It works on whatever level you want to bring to it." Filmmaker Darren Aronofsky commented, "I walked out of The Matrix [...] and I was thinking, 'What kind of science fiction movie can people make now?' The Wachowskis basically took all the great sci-fi ideas of the 20th century and rolled them into a delicious pop culture sandwich that everyone on the planet devoured."
Awards and nominationsEdit
The Matrix received Oscars for film editing, sound effects editing, visual effects, and sound. Furthermore, this is the first film to win the Academy Award for Visual Effects over a film in the Star Wars series (Star Wars: The Phantom Menace). In 1999, it won Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film and Best Direction. The Matrix also received BAFTA awards for Best Sound and Best Achievement in Special Visual Effects, in addition to nominations in the cinematography, production design and editing categories.
Influences and interpretationsEdit
|The Matrix is arguably the ultimate "cyberpunk" artifact.|
—William Gibson, 2003-01-28
The Matrix makes numerous references to recent films and literature, and to historical myths and philosophy including Vedanta, Advaita Hinduism, Yoga Vashishta Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism, Messianism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Christianity, Existentialism, Nihilism, and occult tarot. The film's premise resembles Plato's Allegory of the cave, Edwin Abbott Abbott's Flatland, René Descartes's evil genius, Kant's reflections on the Phenomenon versus the Ding an sich, and the brain in a vat thought experiment, while Jean Baudrillard's Simulacra and Simulation is featured in the film. There are similarities to several works by science fiction author Philip K. Dick, as well as cyberpunk works such as Neuromancer by William Gibson.
In Postmodern thought, interpretations of The Matrix often reference Baudrillard's philosophy to demonstrate that the movie is an allegory for contemporary experience in a heavily commercialized, media-driven society, especially of the developed countries. This influence was brought to the public's attention through the writings of art historians such as Griselda Pollock and film theorists such as Heinz-Peter Schwerfel.
Japanese director Mamoru Oshii's Ghost in the Shell was a strong influence. Producer Joel Silver has stated that the Wachowski brothers first described their intentions for The Matrix by showing him that anime and saying, "We wanna do that for real". Mitsuhisa Ishikawa of Production I.G, which produced Ghost in the Shell, noted that the anime's high-quality visuals were a strong source of inspiration for the Wachowski brothers. He also commented, "... cyberpunk films are very difficult to describe to a third person. I'd imagine that The Matrix is the kind of film that was very difficult to draw up a written proposal for to take to film studios." He stated that since Ghost in the Shell had gained recognition in America, the Wachowski brothers used it as a "promotional tool". Besides Ghost in the Shell, another anime which influenced The Matrix was the 1985 film Megazone 23.
Reviewers have commented on similarities between The Matrix and other late-1990s films such as Strange Days, Dark City, and The Truman Show. Comparisons have also been made to Grant Morrison's comic series The Invisibles; Morrison believes that the Wachowski brothers essentially plagiarized his work to create the film. In addition, the similarity of the film's central concept to a device in the long running series Doctor Who has also been noted. As in the film, the Matrix of that series (introduced in the 1976 serial The Deadly Assassin) is a massive computer system which one enters using a device connecting to the head, allowing users to see representations of the real world and change its laws of physics; but if killed there, they will die in reality.
Influence on filmmakingEdit
The Matrix has had a strong effect on action film-making in Hollywood. It upped the ante for cinematic fight scenes by hiring acclaimed choreographers (such as Yuen Woo-ping) from the Hong Kong action cinema scene, well-known for its production of martial arts films. The success of The Matrix put those choreographers in high demand by other filmmakers who wanted fights of similar sophistication: for example, Yuen Woo-ping's brother Yuen Cheung-Yan was choreographer on Daredevil (2003).
Following The Matrix, films made abundant use of slow-motion, spinning cameras, and, often, the bullet time effect of a character freezing or slowing down and the camera panning around them. The ability to slow down time enough to distinguish the motion of bullets was used as a central gameplay mechanic of several video games, including Max Payne, in which the feature was explicitly referred to as "bullet time". The Matrix's signature special effect has been parodied numerous times, in comedy films such as Scary Movie, Deuce Bigalow: Male Gigolo, Shrek, Main Hoon Na (BollyWood) and Kung Pow: Enter the Fist; in TV series such as The Simpsons and Family Guy; in the OVA series FLCL; and in video games such as Conker's Bad Fur Day.
The film's mainstream success led to the greenlighting of two previously unplanned sequels, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. These were filmed simultaneously during one shoot and released in two parts in 2003. The first film's introductory tale is replaced by a story centered on the impending attack of the human enclave of Zion by a vast machine army. Neo also learns more about the history of the Matrix, his role as the One and the prophecy that he will end the war. The sequels also incorporate longer and more ambitious action scenes, as well as improvements in bullet time and other visual effects.
Also released was The Animatrix, a collection of nine animated short films, many of which were created in the same Japanese animation style that was a strong influence on the live trilogy. The Animatrix was overseen and approved by the Wachowski brothers but they only wrote four of the segments themselves and did not direct any of them, while some of them (such as Osiris and Kid's Story) are directly linked to the movies; much of the project was created by notable figures from the world of anime. Four of the films were originally released on the series' official website; one was shown in cinemas with the Warner Bros. movie Dreamcatcher; the others first appeared with the DVD release of all nine shorts. Several of the films were shown first on UK television prior to their DVD release.
The franchise also contains three video games: Enter the Matrix (2003), which contains footage shot specifically for the game and chronicles events taking place before and during The Matrix Reloaded; The Matrix Online (2004), a MMORPG which continues the story beyond The Matrix Revolutions; and The Matrix: Path of Neo, which was released on November 8 2005 and focuses on situations based on Neo's journey through the trilogy of films.
Available on the official website are a number of free comics set in the world of The Matrix, written and illustrated by figures from the comics industry. Some of these comics are also available in two printed volumes, the The Matrix Comics.
Notes and referencesEdit
- ↑ Ebert, Roger (November 6, 2005). "Great Movies: Dark City". Retrieved on December 18, 2006.
- ↑ Hillner, Jennifer. "I, Robocop". Wired. Condé Nast Publications.
- ↑ Riggs, Ransom. "5 million-dollar mistakes by movie stars." CNN. Accessed October 20, 2008.
- ↑ Larry Carroll (2007-12-07). "Will Smith Snagged 'I Am Legend' From Schwarzenegger, But Can You Imagine Nicolas Cage In 'The Matrix'?", MTV. Retrieved on 8 December 2007.
- ↑ Nathan Hale Williams (2008-02-28). "The Janet Jackson Interview", The Daily Voice. Retrieved on 8 March 2008.
- ↑ Costume designer Kym Barret, production designer Owen Paterson and cinematographer Bill Pope, interviewed in The Matrix Revisited (Chapter 7).
- ↑ Don Davis, interviewed in The Matrix Revisited (Chapter 28). A transcript of his comments may be found online: 
- ↑ Box Office Mojo: The Matrix. URL retrieved 8 March 2006.
- ↑ "Press release - August 1, 2000 - The Matrix DVD: The first to sell 3 million". URL retrieved 26 July 2006.
- ↑ Warner Home Video (2007-03-23). "The Matrix is Coming to HD DVD", Comingsoon.net. Retrieved on 23 March 2007.
- ↑ Warner Home Video (2008-07-25). "'Ultimate Matrix' Blu-ray Coming in October", highdefdigest.com. Retrieved on 18 August 2008.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 "The Matrix (1999): Reviews". Metacritic. CNET Networks, Inc. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 "The Matrix Movie Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. IGN Entertainment, Inc. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
- ↑ "The Matrix Movie Reviews, Top Critics". Rotten Tomatoes. IGN Entertainment, Inc. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
- ↑ "Sight & Sound review of The Matrix". Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Roger Ebert's review of The Matrix. URL retrieved 21 August 2006.
- ↑ ""Time Out Film Review - The Matrix"". Time Out Film Guide 13. Time Out. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
- ↑ ""Critical review of The Matrix"". Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
- ↑ ""Negative review of The Matrix"". Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
- ↑ Jeff Jensen (2007-05-07). "The Sci-Fi 25", Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved on 7 May 2007.
- ↑ The Art of the Matrix, p.451
- ↑ "The 201 Greatest Movies of all Time", Empire (Issue 201) (March 2006), pp. 98.
- ↑ Darren Aronofsky, quoted in the article "The Outsider", Wired. November 2006 issue (pp. 224)
- ↑ "Academy Awards® Database — Search page". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
- ↑ "The Wachowski Brothers". Tribute magazine. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
- ↑ "Saturn Awards". SaturnAwards.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
- ↑ "BAFTA Film Winners 1990 – 1999" (PDF). BAFTA.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
- ↑ "THE MATRIX: FAIR COP", The William Gibson Blog
- ↑ http://www.divreinavon.com/pdf/MatrixMysticalMidrash.pdf The Matrix: A Mystical Modern Midrash
- ↑ "The Matrix Tarot" YouTube video by Daniel Böttger
- ↑ Rose, Frank. "The Second Coming of Philip K. Dick". Wired magazine.
- ↑ Zenko, Darren. "Not another Philip K. Dick movie". The Toronto Star.
- ↑ "William Gibson on Philip K. Dick". philipkdickfans.com.
- ↑ Axmaker, Sean. "Philip K. Dick's dark dreams still fodder for films". Seattle Post Intelligencer.
- ↑ "The Matrix: Fair Cop". URL retrieved 7 July 2006.
- ↑ Griselda Pollock, "Does Art Think?" In: Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003. ISBN 0-631-22715-6
- ↑ Griselda Pollock, "Inscritions in the Feminine" In: Catherine de Zegher (eds), Inside the Visible. MIT Press, 1996
- ↑ Heinz-Peter Schwerfel, Kino and Kunst, Koln: Dumont, 2003.
- ↑ Joel Silver, interviewed in "Scrolls to Screen: A Brief History of Anime" featurette on The Animatrix DVD.
- ↑ Joel Silver, interviewed in "Making The Matrix" featurette on The Matrix DVD.
- ↑ Mitsuhisa Ishikawa, interviewed in The South Bank Show, episode broadcast 19 February 2006 
- ↑ "Megazone 23". A.D. Vision. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
- ↑ "The Matrix (1999) - Channel 4 Film review". URL retrieved 21 August 2006.
- ↑ "Cinephobia reviews: The Matrix". URL retrieved 27 December 2006.
- ↑ "Poor Mojo Newswire: Suicide Girls Interview with Grant Morrison". URL retrieved 31 July 2006.
- ↑ Condon, Paul. The Matrix Unlocked. 2003. Contender. p.141-3. ISBN 1-84357-093-9
- ↑ The Matrix Comics at the official Matrix website
- Spencer Lamm (editor); Larry and Andy Wachowski, Steve Skroce, Geof Darrow, Tani Kunitake, Warren Manser, Colin Grant, Zach Staenberg, Phil Oesterhouse, William Gibson (2000). The Art of the Matrix, Titan. pp. 488. ISBN 1-84023-173-4.
- Josh Oreck (Director). (2001). The Matrix Revisited [DVD]. Warner Bros..
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